Microwave Oven Wiring Diagram, Internal Circuit, and Connection

Hey, in this article, we are going to see the Microwave Oven Wiring Diagram, Internal Circuit Diagram, Internal Components, and Connection description.

A microwave oven, commonly referred to as a microwave, is a kitchen appliance that uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range to heat and cook food. Microwave ovens can cook food much faster than conventional methods like stovetops or ovens.

The core principle behind the functioning of a microwave oven is the generation of microwaves, which are a type of electromagnetic radiation with a frequency between radio waves and infrared radiation.

Microwave Oven Wiring Diagram and Connection

Here, you can see the wiring diagram to understand how to connect a microwave oven to a power supply.

Microwave Oven Wiring Diagram and Connection

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The power socket or outlet you use should match the microwave's power requirements and be a grounded outlet. It's essential to have a properly installed three-pin grounded socket for safety.

Most microwave ovens come with a three-pin plug top that is suitable for a standard three-pin power socket. Ensure the power cord is in good condition without any visible damage or wear.

Insert the top plug into the power socket. And avoid using multiple appliances on the same circuit to prevent overloading it.

Once the microwave is connected, turn it on and test its functions to ensure that it's working correctly.

Microwave Oven Internal Circuit and Connection Diagram

Here, you can see the internal circuit diagram of a Microwave Oven and the connection between each component.

Microwave Oven Internal Circuit and Connection Diagram

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Remember that Microwave Oven from different manufacturers has different designs and their internal circuit also be different. So it is recommended to follow the user manual and circuit diagram provided by the manufacturer. Here, we will discuss only the main important components and their function that are used in all types of microwave ovens.


The magnetron is the heart of the microwave oven. Its primary function is to generate microwaves, which are electromagnetic waves used to heat the food. When the microwave oven is turned on, the magnetron converts electrical energy from the power supply into high-frequency microwaves, which are then directed into the cooking chamber to heat the food.

High Voltage Transformer

The high-voltage transformer is responsible for converting the standard household voltage (usually 120V or 230V AC) into the high voltage (typically around 2,000 to 5,000 volts) needed to power the magnetron. It steps up the voltage from the power supply to supply the necessary energy for the magnetron to generate microwaves.

High Voltage Capacitor

The high-voltage capacitor stores the high voltage provided by the transformer. It acts as a buffer, maintaining a stable voltage supply to the magnetron during its operation. The capacitor releases stored energy when the magnetron needs an extra boost to produce microwave radiation.

Lamp (Interior Light)

The lamp or interior light inside the microwave oven illuminates the cooking chamber, allowing users to see the food while it's cooking or heating.

Door Switches

Microwave ovens are designed with safety features to prevent them from operating with the door open. There are multiple door switches, typically located around the door's perimeter, that detect whether the door is closed securely. If any of these switches fail to engage properly when the door is closed, the microwave will not start, ensuring user safety.

Thermal Cutout Switch (Thermostat)

The thermal cutout switch, also known as a thermostat, is a safety device that monitors the oven's temperature. If the internal temperature becomes too high due to an overheating issue, the thermal cutout switch trips, cutting off power to the microwave and preventing potential damage or hazards.

Digital Programming Circuit

The digital programming circuit controls the microwave's operation and interface. It includes the control panel, keypad, and display, allowing users to set cooking times, power levels, and other settings. This circuit processes user inputs and communicates with other components to execute the selected cooking instructions.

Fan Motor

The fan motor is responsible for cooling down the microwave oven during and after cooking. It expels hot air and helps dissipate the heat generated by the magnetron and other components. The cooling fan ensures that the microwave remains at a safe temperature and protects it from overheating.

Turntable Motor

Many microwave ovens have a turntable inside the cooking chamber. The turntable motor rotates the glass turntable to ensure even heating of the food by preventing hot spots and cold spots within the microwave cavity.

Relays and Switches

Relays are electromagnetic switches that control the flow of electricity to different components. They help manage the power distribution within the microwave oven, turning various functions on and off as needed. Regular switches, like the door switches mentioned earlier, serve as safety features to ensure the oven operates correctly and safely.

Noise Filters

Microwave ovens are equipped with noise filters to prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) from escaping the appliance. These filters help comply with electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards and prevent the microwave from causing interference with other electronic devices.

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Microwave Oven Wiring Diagram, Internal Circuit, and Connection Microwave Oven Wiring Diagram, Internal Circuit, and Connection Reviewed by Author on August 01, 2023 Rating: 5
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