Computer Block Diagram and Architecture Explained

Hey, in this article we are going to see a computer block diagram and architecture. In this block diagram of computer, each block is explained below. A computer is an electronic machine that processes electronic signals to perform arithmetic and logical operations. If we see, from the very top a conventional has main three parts - input devices, processors, and output devices. In simple words, the working principle of a computer is it takes input signals from the input devices. After processing those signals, it generates the output signal and sends it to the output devices.

So between the input devices, processor, and output devices so many functions and processes happen. It can be understood easily in the below block diagram. A computer works properly when its hardware and software are installed properly. Some examples of computer hardware are Processor, Memory, RAM, Graphics Card, etc. Some examples of software are MS Office, MS Word, MS Excel, etc.

Computer Block Diagram

Here you can see the block diagram of computer below.

Computer Block Diagram and Architecture, block diagram of computer

Now, let's discuss about the each block.

Input Devices

Input devices of a computer are those devices through which we give the input information or data to calculate or process. For example, we want to add 3 and 5. So, we need to open the calculator application and give input by typing 3+5 through the keyboard. Some examples of computer input devices are keyboards, mouses, microphones, joysticks, etc.

Output Devices

Computer output devices are those devices through which the computer provides the output signal to its external world. For, example, when we give input 3+5, after calculating it will show result 8 in its display. So the display or monitor is an output device. Some other examples of computer output devices are speakers, printers, etc.

Central Processing Unit(CPU)

It is the main part of the computer. CPU consists of main three parts - control unit, Arithmetic, and Logic Unit or ALU, and Memory Unit.

Control Unit or CU

It is part of the CPU. The main function of the control unit is to provide control signals to all components and circuits of the computer including input and output devices. It synchronizes the components when they transfer data to each other. For example, ALU needs data from the memory unit. In this case, the control unit provides a synchronized control to both the ALU and the Memory Unit, so the ALU can easily take data from the memory unit.

ALU or Arithmetic and Logic Unit

It performs all the logical and arithmetic operations. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division come under arithmetic operations. On the other hand, greater than, less than, comparing, moving, and rotating comes under logical operations. ALU is the main part of the CPU as well as the computer because it only performs the tasks or executes the instructions.

Memory Unit

It is for storing data temporarily or permanently. Primary memory such as register, and cache memory is part of the CPU and they are used for storing data temporarily during program execution by the ALU. Once the task is completed by the ALU, all data will automatically be deleted from the cache memory or register. Hard Disk Drives(HDD), Solid State Drives(SSD) are secondary, they are used for data permanently or for a long time. Until we manually delete the data it will be stored in the secondary.

Power Supply

SMPS or Switched Mode Power Supply is used in a Computer to provide power supply to each circuit and component of the computer. It produces different voltage levels for different components. For example, if the cooling fan requires a 12V DC power supply, the SMPS will provide a 12V DC power supply to the fan. At the same time, it provides a 5V DC power supply to the other components such as CPU, RAM, Graphics Card, etc.

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Computer Block Diagram and Architecture Explained Computer Block Diagram and Architecture Explained Reviewed by Author on June 07, 2021 Rating: 5
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