Power Factor is a very important topic in electrical engineering. The behavior of an electrical circuit, losses, and power consumes are depended upon the power factor. The power Factor of an electrical system indicates a value with respect to the phase angle between voltage and current. The value of the Power factor varies from -1 to 1. Today we are going to know the causes of the Zero Power Factor, its effects, advantages, disadvantages, etc.

In simple words, the Power factor is the ratio of the Active Power or Real Power (which is actually consumed by the load) to the Apparent Power(useless power flowing in the circuit).

## Zero Power Factor

When the phase difference between current and voltage is exactly 90 degrees, then Zero Power occurs. It may be a Leading power factor or a Lagging Power factor depending upon the load. When the power factor is zero, it means that the voltage and current are completely out of phase with each other. In other words, the current wave reaches its peak or zero point 90 degrees before or after the voltage wave.

In the case of Zero leading power factor current leads behind the voltage by 90-degree phase angle.

On the other hand, the Zero lagging power factor indicates that the current lags behind the voltage by 90-degree phase angle.

## Causes of Zero Power Factor

If in an AC circuit, pure inductive load is connected then the current will lag 90-degree behind the voltage and causes the zero lagging power factor. When a purely inductive load is connected, it does not consume any power which means no active or real power is consumed only reactive power is flowing in the circuit.

If in an AC circuit, pure capacitive load is connected then the current will lead 90-degree behind the voltage and causes the zero leading power factor. In this case, also no active or real power is consumed only reactive power flowing in the circuit.

So, Pure Capacitive load or Pure Inductive Load can cause the Zero Power factor.

## Effects of Zero Power Factor

Zero Power factor causes unwanted losses in the electrical circuits. In the Zero Power factor, no active power factor is flowing only reactive power is flowing so a waste of power occurs. Zero lagging power factor causes high losses in the circuit and the zero leading power factor causes unwanted high voltage in the circuit. Zero power factor increases the reactive power demand from the power sources. As a result, transformers, generators, and other power distribution equipment may become overloaded.

## Improvement of Zero Power Factor

Generally, the occurrence of the Zero Power factor is not possible in practice because there is no pure capacitive and pure inductive load available. Any capacitive or inductive load has some resistance.

The lagging power factor can be improved by Capacitors, synchronous motors, etc. The leading power factor can be improved by inductive loads such as inductors.

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Zero Power Factor Causes, Effects, Improvement Reviewed by Author on January 17, 2020 Rating: 5