The cosine of the angle between voltage and current flowing in an electrical AC circuit is called the Power Factor. Power factor defines the phase difference between voltage current and it also indicates how much power is doing useful work and how much power is wasted.

Generally, the power factor varies depending on the energy-storing loads such as capacitors and inductors. In DC circuits, the capacitor and inductor do not create any phase difference between voltage and current. As in the DC circuit, there is no phase difference between voltage and current power factor always unity or we can say DC has no power factor.

## Unity Power Factor

When there is no phase difference between voltage and current or they are in the same phase, then the unity power factor occurs. At the unity power factor, the whole part of the main power supply is doing the useful work. In this case, no power is wasted.

At the unity power factor, very low losses occur. Voltage fluctuation, and transient voltage problem does not occur at the unity power factor.

## When Unity Power Factor Occurs?

In a DC circuit, the power factor is always one or unity even if any type of load is connected. In the case of the AC circuit, the Unity Power factor occurs when a purely resistive load is connected to the supply.

Here, you can see in the below figure, a pure resistive load is connected with the AC supply, and the voltage and current both are in the same phase.

In an AC circuit unity power factor occurs, when both inductive and capacitive loads are connected but the reactance has been neutralized which means the inductance is equal to the capacitance. But in this case, practically power factor value of exactly One(1) is not possible, it is possible to be approximately One.

## Advantages of Unity Power Factor

1. At the unity power factor, the whole part of the main power supply is doing useful work or consumed by the load so no power is wasted. It is the biggest advantage of the unity power factor.

2. At the unity power factor, not so much current flowing in the circuit that's why electrical cables become less bulky.

3. As low current flow, losses and heat production are also low which increases the life span of the cable.

4. Unity power factor reduces the overheating of transformers, motors, etc.

## How to get Unity Power Factor?

The improvement of the power factor means, taking its value near to one. So we can improve the power factor of a load by using another load having an opposite characteristic.

For example, if we want to improve the lagging power factor created by the inductive load, then we need to connect the capacitive load.

If we want to improve the leading power factor created by the capacitive load, then we need to connect the inductive load.

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Unity Power Factor Causes, Advantages, Improvements Reviewed by Author on January 22, 2020 Rating: 5