Hey, in this article we are going to learn how an antenna works and how it transmits or receives the wireless signal. An antenna is a device that basically converts the electrical signal into an electromagnetic wave or electromagnetic wave into an electrical signal. So there are two types of Antenna - Transmitting Antenna and Receiving Antenna. The transmitting Antenna converts the electrical signal into an electromagnetic wave to transmit it and the receiving antenna receives the electromagnetic wave and converts it into an electrical signal.

Here, you can see the diagram that will help you to easily understand the working principle of a transmitting and receiving antenna.

The transmitting antenna works on the principle that when alternating electricity pushes the electrons of a conductive wire to vibrate up and down, it will generate an invisible electromagnetic wave. Remember that the nature of the electricity applied to the antenna must be alternating or time-varying in nature. If we provide a constant power supply to the antenna it will not generate the electromagnetic wave. That is why generally, we use the electrical signal having Kilo Hertz to Mega Hertz frequency is used to transmit through the antenna.

The receiving antenna works on the principle of the just opposite of the transmitting antenna. When the electromagnetic wave hits the antenna, the electrons of the antenna conductor will start vibrating or that will cause to flow of a small electric current that can be collected by the receiver circuit. Thus the receiving antenna intercepts some of the power of the radio wave to produce the electric current.

Also, remember that the length of the antenna must be half of the wavelength. If the wavelength(Î»), then the length, L= Î»/2

Thus the antenna transmits and receives the electromagnetic wave. And we know that the electromagnetic wave can travel in space at the speed of light so it is possible to transmit information through electromagnetic waves at a large distance without any transmitting medium. Also, remember that there are various types of antenna are available but most of them provide the same function. Here, in the above diagram, we have shown a Diploe Antenna which is the basic design principle for almost all the antennas.