Satellite Communication Block Diagram and Working Principle

The electronic communication system is the process of exchanging information between two or more individuals through an electronic signal. Electronic communication or telecommunication systems are classified into different types according to their transmission medium. The satellite communication system is one of them. When the communication system uses the satellite for its signal transmission purpose then it is called a satellite communication system.

Satellite communication systems increase the communication distance, and can transmit a large amount of data. Generally, the electromagnetic wave is used as the carrier signal. So audio signals, video signals, and other information or data are transmitted using this electromagnetic wave. The satellite communication system is used for radio, television, telecommunication, as well as internet systems.

Block Diagram of Satellite Communication System

Here, you can see the satellite communication block diagram and its very important part.

Satellite communication block diagram, Block Diagram of Satellite Communication System

Working Principle of Satellite Communication System

If you know the functions of all the blocks shown in the above diagram then you can easily understand how satellite communication works.


The user who actually sends or receives the information or data. The user may be a sender or a receiver. Here, we have shown the two-way communication system.

Terrestrial System

It is the local geometrical communication system between earth stations. They did not use satellites for communication. Terrestrial communication uses both analog and digital signals for data transmission. The terrestrial communication system is used to connect local earth stations. This system also all the local users to an earth station.

Earth Stations

Earth stations are those from where signals are sent to the satellite and received signals from the satellite. Earth stations collect data from all the users and make it ready to transmit through the satellite. Earth stations have all the required circuits such as an oscillator, amplifier, modulator, demodulator, etc. Earth stations do all the major works of the communication system such as it amplifies the signal before sending or after receiving. It removes all the noise and corrects all the errors in the signals.


The antenna is a device that sends and receives the signal in the form of a radio wave or microwave. It creates a medium between the circuit and space for the transmission of signals.

The antenna is a crucial component of satellite communication systems and is commonly used for television broadcasting, internet connectivity, and other applications. A satellite antenna has some important parts and components such as Dish, LNB (Low-Noise Block downconverter), Feedhorn, Mounting Assembly, Cables, Connectors, etc.

When setting up a satellite antenna, it is essential to align it properly to the desired satellite. This alignment ensures optimal signal reception and minimizes interference. It's important to note that the specific design and configuration of satellite antennas can vary depending on the intended application, such as Direct-to-Home (DTH) television reception, VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) systems for internet connectivity, or specialized communication systems for military or scientific purposes.

Uplink and Downlink

The Uplink is the transmission channel through which the signal is transmitted from the Earth station to the satellite. Downlink is the transmission channel through which the signal is transmitted from the satellite to the Earth station. The frequency at which the signal is transmitted from the earth station to the satellite is called uplink frequency. On the other hand, the frequency at which the signal is transmitted from the satellite to the Earth station is called Downlink frequency.


The transponder is a device available in the satellite which actually does the communication with the earth stations. A satellite consists of thousand of transponders.
The transponder receives the signal from the earth stations at a frequency, then it converts those signals into another frequency and then sends them to the other earth stations.

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Satellite Communication Block Diagram and Working Principle Satellite Communication Block Diagram and Working Principle Reviewed by Author on November 17, 2021 Rating: 5
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