Understand Embedded System Block Diagram with Examples

An embedded basically a microprocessor or microcontroller-based automation system which is designed and installed to perform a specific task. An embedded system is a combination of input devices, output devices, and memory. The complexity of the circuit depends upon the objective of the work. If the operation is more complex then the circuit also is more complex as it has multiple inputs, outputs, etc. But if the operation is simple, the circuit will be simple. The main aim of an embedded system is to perform a specific task only such as a particular machine operating, temperature controlling, water controlling, etc. An embedded system may be an individual and independent system or maybe a part of a large automation system.

Practical Examples of Embedded Systems

The common practical examples of embedded systems are industrial assembly lines, video game players, DVD players, Mobile Phones, Central heating systems, automatic washing machines, automatic dryers, LED Chasers, Remote control toys, etc.

Embedded System Block Diagram

Here, you can see the block diagram of embedded system.

Embedded System Block Diagram and Architecture, block diagram of Embedded System

The architecture and different parts of an embedded system

An embedded system has the following parts for its actual operations.

Sensors(Input Devices)

The sensor is a device that senses the physical changes around it and generates an electrical or electronic signal according to the physical changes. Most of the sensors generate signals analog in nature. Thermostats, Light Dependent Resistors(LDR), and flow switches are examples of sensors used in embedded systems. In a practical embedded system, there are so many devices and circuits that are used with sensors to increase their sensitivity, power control, and noise, or distortion removal purposes.

Analog to Digital(A/D) Converter

As we know most of the sensors generate analog signals only. But the processor cannot read and process the analog signals. So an analog-to-digital converter converts the analog signals generated by the sensor into digital signals which will be processed by the microprocessor or microcontroller.


Microprocessors, Microcontroller, Digital Signal Processor(DSP), Application-Specific Integrated Circuits(ASIC), Gate arrays, Field Programmable Gate Arrays(FPGA), and GPUs are examples of devices that can be used as a processor in an embedded system. Any one of them is used for processing purposes. This also depends upon the objective of the work or operation. If the work allocated by the embedded system is more complex then a high-quality processor is used.


Memory is a data-storing device that stores all the data of the embedded system including its firm wires, applications, software, input data variables, programs, instructions, etc. Read-Only Memory(ROM), Random Acess Memory(RAM), Flash Memory, Cache Memory, etc are used in an embedded system. This also depends upon the task and processor used in the system.

Digital to Analog(D/A) Converter

A processor can generate digital signals only. So the different types of output devices such as actuators, speakers, and buzzers that work with analog signals cannot be directly interfaced with the processor. So, a digital-to-analog converter is required to convert the digital signal generated by the processor into analog signals that will be used to operate analog output devices. Digital output devices such as displays do not require the digital-to-analog converter, it can be interfaced directly with the processor using a driver circuit.

Actuator(Output Device)

The actuator is a device that makes physical changes when an electrical or electronic signal is applied to it. Solenoids, stepper motors, electromagnets, etc are examples of actuators used in an embedded system.

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Understand Embedded System Block Diagram with Examples Understand Embedded System Block Diagram with Examples Reviewed by Author on November 08, 2021 Rating: 5
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