Speaker Connection with Amplifier | Procedure and Diagram


We all love music and sound. Also, we want to have a good music system in our home. But every time you need to call a technician to set up a music system. If you are want to build an amazing music system then you come to the right place. But always do the electrical work if you are certified and do it at your own risk. In this article, we are going to discuss everything about speaker and amplifier connections from basics to advance. Speaker and amplifier both are important parts of an audio system. Without any one of them, the music system can't be built. Of course, we will know that about the stereo music system that will help you to make any normal music system for your home or studio.


Basic knowledge for speaker and amplifier connection


In this section, we will know the most important factors and basic knowledge that you must know before connecting a speaker with an amplifier. Because just connecting a speaker with an amplifier cannot give you an amazing listening experience, so you must know about the following factors.


Speaker Ratings(Power, Impedance)


All the speakers come with these basic two ratings power and impedance. Power rating indicates that how much electrical power will be consumed by the speaker per time. 

The impedance is the combination of resistance and reactance of the voice coil inside a speaker. The voice coil in the speaker has internal resistance. And when the audio signal is applied to this voice coil it creates inductance also. So, due to the inductance inductive reactance also occurs. The combination of this inductance reactance and resistance is called impedance. The impedance occurs only when the speaker is connected with the supply. So, in general, speakers come with both impedance and resistance ratings. Both are the same. The impedance rating or resistance rating is very important because it should be matched with the amplifier resistance rating. If the amplifier resistance and speaker resistance do not match then you will not get a good sound quality.


Amplifier Ratings(Power, Impedance)


All the amplifiers come with those basic ratings such as power and impedance. The power rating of the amplifier indicates that how much electrical power it can deliver per time. The power rating of the speaker must be lower than the amplifier power rating. Otherwise, the amplifier will be burned. Generally, the power rating of the amplifier is 25% more than the connected speaker rating. If you use a 100watt speaker then you must use a more than 125watt amplifier.

The impedance rating of the amplifier is also a very important factor. The impedance or resistance rating of both speaker and amplifier should be matched, otherwise, the current flow in the circuit will be disturbed and you will not get the proper sound quality. If your amplifier has a resistance of 8 ohms, then the resistance of the connected speaker also be 8 ohm. 

Also, all the amplifier has a minimum impedance rating. That means the minimum impedance rating of the amplifier is 4 ohm, you should not connect a speaker whose impedance is lower than 4 ohms. If you connect a low ohm speaker, the current flow will be more and the amplifier will be damaged. So, if an amplifier has an impedance rating 4-16ohm. You should connect speakers with having ratings between this range.

So, the conclusion is that when connecting a speaker with an amplifier, the impedance of the speaker should be higher than the minimum impedance rating of the amplifier and the power rating of the speaker should be lower than the power rating of the amplifier.


Speaker Wire Selection


To build up a good audio system the selection of the proper speaker wire is a very important factor. The speaker wire should be of good quality and have the proper size to carry pulsating current and voltage. of the audio signal. The common sizes for the speaker wire are 12 gauge, 14 gauge, 16 gauge, and 18 gauge. Stranded wires are more preferable than the solid wire for the speaker connection as it provides more flexibility, strength, volatility, etc.


Amplifier and Speaker Polarity


For Mano audio system the polarity does not affect more. But in a stereo music system, the polarity of the speaker and amplifier is very important. You should connect both speakers in the same polarity. It is best to connect the left side speaker to the left speaker terminals of the amplifier and the right side speaker to the right side terminals of the amplifier. Also, the positive terminal of the speaker is to be connected to the positive terminal of the amplifier and the negative terminal of the speaker is to be connected to the negative terminal of the amplifier.

If you connect the speakers with the opposite polarity the sound of both speakers will be canceled out to each other and the overall sound will be low and of poor quality. So, the polarity of the speaker and amplifier terminals must be considered during the connection.


Connection Diagram of Speaker and Amplifier


Here, you can see the speaker connection with an amplifier for a stereo audio system.

Speaker Connection with Amplifier for stereo audio system, speaker and amplifier connection


Connection Procedure


Before connecting all the devices should be selected with proper followed by the above information.

1. Connect the positive terminal of the left side speaker to the positive terminal of the left speaker out terminal of the amplifier.

2. Connect the negative terminal of the left side speaker to the negative terminal of the left speaker out terminal of the amplifier.

3. Connect the positive terminal of the right-side speaker to the positive terminal of the right speaker out terminal of the amplifier.

4. Connect the negative terminal of the right-side speaker to the negative terminal of the right speaker out terminal of the amplifier.


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Connecting Multiple Speaker with a Single amplifier


Now, the question is if we want to connect multiple speakers then how to calculate rating and how to do the connection. There are two methods to connect multiple speakers - series and parallel. For example, here we have taken an amplifier whose power rating is 100 watts and impedance rating is 4-8ohm. So, the output speaker load should not exceed 100watt and should not have an impedance below 4 ohms.


Speaker Connection in Series


Now, we have taken two speakers each of 25watts and have an impedance of 4 ohms. Now, if we connect those two speakers in series the total load will be (25watt + 25watt) = 50 watts and the resistance will be(4+4) = 8ohm.

Speaker Connection in Series, speaker wiring in series, speaker connection diagram



Now, if you connect these two speakers in parallel, it will be not safe for the amplifier. Because the total watts will be(25+25) = 50watt and the impedance will be 2 ohms.


Speaker Connection in Parallel


Now, we have taken two speakers each of 25 watts and having an impedance of 8 ohms. Now, if we connect those two speakers in parallel the total will be (25watt +25watt) = 50 watts and the impedance will be 4 ohms.

Speaker Connection in Parallel,  speaker wiring in parallel, speaker connection diagram



Now, if you connect those two speakers in series, the total wattage will be (25+25) = 50 watts and the impedance will be (8+8) = 16 ohms. But the maximum impedance of the amplifier is 8 ohm. So the audio signal will be blocked by the crossovers. The speaker will not work properly.


So, the conclusion is, in both connections total power will be added. But in the series connection impedance increases means they added whereas in the parallel connection impedance decreases mean divided. So, connect your speaker in such a way that the total impedance and total power of the connected speakers come within the limit of the amplifier rating.


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Speaker Connection with Amplifier | Procedure and Diagram Speaker Connection with Amplifier | Procedure and Diagram Reviewed by Author on 12/13/2021 Rating: 5

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