What is Conventional Fire Alarm System? Wiring Diagram


There are various types of fire alarm systems available in the market but the main two types of fire alarm systems are - 1. Conventional Fire alarm System and 2. Addressable Fire Alarm System. The conventional Fire alarm and Fire Detection system is an old system that cannot show the exact location of the accidental places. The main difference between a conventional and addressable fire alarm system is that the addressable fire alarm system can show the exact location of the accidental place but the conventional fire alarm system cannot. In older days conventional fire alarm systems are used in residential buildings, commercial buildings, stores, factories, etc. The installation and maintenance cost is very low.

The conventional fire alarm system is an analog system. The sensor or initiating devices and notification devices are communicating with the main control panel using analog signals. Generally, they are connected according to the Zones. When any fire-related accident happens, the initiating device senses the environmental changes(Heat, smoke) during the accident and they make changes in the flow of current, so the control panel can trigger the notification device. In a conventional fire alarm system, it is possible to find out that accident happens in which zone but the exact location of the initiating device or accidental place can not find out through the control panel.


Conventional Fire Alarm System Wiring and Connection Diagram


Here, you can see the wiring of conventional fire alarm and fire detection systems.

conventional fire alarm system wiring and connection diagram, wiring diagram of fire alarm system


The control panel for the conventional fire alarm system comes in 2 Zone, 4 Zone, 8 Zone, 16 Zone, or 32 Zone specifications. Here, you can see the connection of a 2 zone system.

You can see the first zone or Zone 1 has a heat detector, a smoke detector, and a Manual Call Point(MCP). Similarly, Zone 2 also has a heat detector, a smoke detector, and a Manual Call Point(MCP). All the devices are connected in series and at the end of the circuit, a resistor of 47Killo Ohm is connected. The value of the EOL(End of Line Resistor) depends upon the manufacturer. The negative terminal can be connected directly for all devices but the positive should go through all the devices.

There are two types of wirings are used in fire alarm systems - Class A or Zone Wiring and Class B or loop wiring. The zone wiring is used in the conventional fire alarm system whereas the loop wiring is used in the addressable fire alarm system.

For example, an accident happens near the Z1/D2. So the control panel will show an accident happens in Zone 1. It will not show the exact location or the device number.



Advantages of Conventional Fire Alarm and Detection System


Only the low installation cost may be an advantage but this is also for smaller circuits or areas. For a large area, the installation cost is high.



Disadvantages of Conventional Fire Alarm System


1. The exact location of the device or accidental place cannot find out through the control panel.

2. Damaging anyone initiating the device can affect the other devices.

3. It cannot provide event history.

4. It allows to connection of a limited number of devices in a single circuit.

5. It does not allow remote control and other communication systems.


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What is Conventional Fire Alarm System? Wiring Diagram What is Conventional Fire Alarm System? Wiring Diagram Reviewed by Author on 12/02/2021 Rating: 5
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