Components of a Fire Alarm System and Their Functions

Here is the list of important fire alarm system components,
  1. Heat Detector(Initiating Device)
  2. Smoke Detector(Initiating Device)
  3. Carbon Monoxide Detector(Initiating Device)
  4. Multi-Sensor Detector(Initiating Device)
  5. Manual Call Point(Initiating Device)
  6. Pull Station(Initiating Device)
  7. Hooter(Notification Device)
  8. Sounder(Notification Device)
  9. Chimes(Notification Device)
  10. Bells(Notification Device)
  11. Horns(Notification Device)
  12. Control Panel
  13. Remote Control and Display
  14. Communication System
  15. Primary Power Source
  16. Secondary Power Source

Initiating Devices

Initiating devices are those that can detect or sense fire-related incidents by sensing the environmental changes and sending signals to the fire control panel including the location of the accidental place. Initiating devices are two types - 1. Manual Initiating Device 2. Automatic Initiating Device.

Heat Detector, fire alarm system component, fire detection system component

The heat detector is a device that can measure the temperature of the environment around it. When the temperature around it increases its pre-set value, it considers it as an abnormal condition and sends signals to the control panel.

Smoke Detector, fire alarm system component, fire detection system component

A smoke detector is a device that can sense smoke. This type of device has such an arrangement or circuitry that when smoke enters into those devices they make changes in the flow of current, so these changes in current flow can be used to initiate the alarm. There are mainly three types of smoke detectors are available in the market,
  1. Ionization Type
  2. Light Scattering Type
  3. Light Obscurring Type

Similarly, Carbon Monoxide detectors and multi-sensor detectors are the automatic initiating devices used to initiate the alarm automatically when a fire-related accident happens.

Notification Devices

Notification devices are those that alert people through sound or visual information when they receive signals from the fire control panel. Basically, what happens, when a fire-related accident happens, the initiating devices send signals to the fire control panel. The fire control panel activates the notification devices by sending signals to them.
Different types of fire alarm systems use different types of alert or notification systems. This also depends upon the application places, countries, etc. In most of the places, a variable frequency siren system is used as the notification system of a fire alarm system.

The notification devices speakers, hooters, sounders, or other sound devices convert the electrical energy into sound energy and they alert people through the sound or voice. On the other hand, displays, and lighting systems are used to alert people through visual information and indications.

Fire Control Panel

The fire control panel is the main hub or brain of the fire alarm and detection system. Fire alarm control panel(FACP) also known as Fire Alarm Control Unit(FACU). All the initiating devices and notification devices are connected to this control panel. It shows all the important information such as the location or address of the accidental place, the status of the fire alarm system components, event history, alarms, etc. Nowadays, a modern fire control panel allows to operate remotely through an external computer or other controlling and monitoring devices.

Power Supply

The power supply is to be provided to the control panel. The control panel only takes the electrical power supply and provides it to other devices connected to it. Two types of power supply are used in the Fire control panel - Primary Power Source and Secondary Power Source. The primary power source is taken from our utility power supply or connected to the distribution board and the secondary power supply is the backup power supply. The secondary power supply supplies the electrical when the main power supply is not available. A rectifier circuit, inverter circuit, and batteries are used for the secondary power source.

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Components of a Fire Alarm System and Their Functions Components of a Fire Alarm System and Their Functions Reviewed by Author on November 29, 2021 Rating: 5
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