DC Motor Diagram and Constructional Parts

In this article, we are going to see the basic constructional diagram of DC motor and its important parts. Electric Motor is a machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. In our daily life even all over the world, the applications and uses of the electric motor are very much. From domestic to industrial everywhere electric motor is used for different purposes such as water pumping, cooling fan, movement, traveling, etc. There are a lot of types of electric motors according to their applications, constructions, input supply. DC motor is that which required direct current for its operation. 

DC Motor Diagram

Here, you can see the constructional diagram of DC Motor

DC Motor Diagram, constructional diagram of DC Motor

Here, you can see the DC motor has rotor winding or armature coil, magnetic poles, casing, commutator, shaft, etc. The working principle of the DC motor is very simple. If the motor having a permanent magnet then just applying a dc voltage to its armature, it will rotate. But if the motor does not have any permanent magnet, then we need to provide dc supply to both field winding and armature to rotate the motor. The above diagram shows a separately excited DC Motor, which means it does not have any permanent magnet.

The field coil in the DC motor may be separately connected to a different power source or ot can be connected to the same power source that lowering the armature winding. The field winding may connected with the armature winding with different configurations such as series, parallel, or series-parallel combination. The polarity of the power supply to the field coil is very important, changes in the polarity will change the magnetic pole.

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DC Motor Parts

The main parts of DC motor are,
  • Stator
  • Rotor
  • Yoke
  • Poles
  • Field Winding
  • Armature Winding
  • Commutator
  • Brushes


The stator is the static part of the motor where the main field windings or poles are mounted. In the above figure, you can see the stator of the DC motor. There you can see four poles are mounted on the stator. Yoke is the part of the stator.


The rotor is the moving or rotating part of the motor. Armature winding, commutator, shaft, all of these are part of the rotor. The armature part of the rotor is fully laminated.


The yoke(outer frame) is the outer circular part of the motor. It is made of cast iron or hard steel. The main function of the Yoke is to cover and protect the inner parts of the motor from any damage. Yoke holds all the static parts of the motor such as field windings or poles.

Poles in DC Motor

Poles in a dc motor are used to create the magnetic flux of a particular polarity. There are two polarities of the pole that are used in DC Moto - the North Pole and the South Pole. Field windings are wounded on the pole. Poles in the DC Motor also have two parts - Pole Core and Pole Face. Pole core is the area where field coils are wounded. 

Field Winding

The field winding is basically made of insulated copper coils wound on the pole core. The polarity of the magnetic flux produced by the field winding depends upon the rotation of the field coil. So, field coils are wounded in opposite rotation in opposite poles as they can produce a magnetic flux of opposite polarity. 

Armature Winding

Armature winding is placed on the rotor. The terminals of the armature winding are connected to the commutator. So, the armature winding always gets AC supply only even we give DC supply to the motor as an input. Generally, due to the interaction between the armature flux and main field flux, the DC motor rotates.


The commutator is a cylindrical structure mounted on the rotor of the DC motor. It is made of copper segments. The main function of the commutator is to collect the power supply from the brushes and provide it to the armature coil. In, dc generator commutator helps to convert the alternating power supply generated by the armature into output dc power supply.


The main function of brushes in a dc motor is to transmit power from the external power source to the commutator. Brushes are made of carbon or graphite material. They are designed in such a way that they can make sliding contact on the rotating commutator.

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DC Motor Diagram and Constructional Parts DC Motor Diagram and Constructional Parts Reviewed by Author on July 19, 2021 Rating: 5
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