In this article, we are going to see the basic constructional diagram of transformer with all its important parts. A transformer is an electrical machine that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another circuit without any conductive part and keeps constant power and frequency. Generally, the transformer is an AC machine, which means it works with only alternating current or voltage, it cannot work with DC current or voltage.

## Transformer Diagram

Here, you can see the step-down transformer diagram.

Here, you can see the transformer has two windings - primary winding and secondary winding. Both windings are wound on a common core. This core is made of ferromagnetic material which has high magnetic permeability and low electrical conductance. The core of the transformer is laminated to eliminate the eddy current loss.

Here, also you can see that it is a step-down transformer so the primary winding is connected to the high-voltage input power supply. And the secondary winding carries low voltage and high current. The secondary winding is connected to the load.

Now, we are going to see the step-up transformer diagram.

In the step-up transformer, the primary winding carries a lower voltage and higher current than the secondary winding. So, you can see here the low voltage side is connected to the input power supply whereas the high voltage side is connected to the load.

## Main Parts of the Transformer

The electrical transformer is a very simple electrical machine. If we see its basic construction, then it has main three parts,
1. Primary Winding
2. Secondary Winding
3. Core

### Primary Winding

It is a very important part of a transformer. The primary winding of a transformer is where the input power supply is to be connected.
In a Step-Down Transformer, the primary winding has more turns than the secondary winding. Also, the primary winding carries high voltage and low current. Also, note that tapping is provided on the primary winding of the step-down transformer.
In a step-up transformer, the primary winding has fewer turns than the secondary winding. Also, it carries low voltage and high currents. In a step-up transformer, the low-voltage winding is connected to the input power supply, and the high-voltage side is connected to the load.

### Secondary Winding

The secondary winding is another important part of the transformer. It is to be connected to the load. In a step-down transformer, the secondary winding contains fewer turns than the primary winding. The secondary winding carries low voltage and high current.
On the other hand, in a step-up transformer, secondary winding contains more turns than primary winding. Also, it carries high voltage and low current.

### Transformer Core

The core of a transformer is a very important part. It creates magnetic links between the primary and secondary coil. When the input power supply is provided to the primary winding of the transformer, it creates a magnetic flux. This magnetic flux is conducted through the core and links to the secondary winding. So the secondary winding produces an emf or voltage.
Generally, the core of the transformer is made using high magnetic permeability materials. So, iron is mostly used for the manufacturing of the core.