Function of Different Parts and Components of Electrical Circuit

Hey, in this article we are going to discuss about the different parts and components of an electrical circuit. In simple words, the electrical circuit is a complete system or closed path in which electrical current flows in the form of electrons and helps to do some useful work. The electrical circuit may be closed at both and maybe open also. When there is an open path and the current does not flow then it is called an open circuit. There is nothing used for an open circuit because it can give any value or help to do some useful work until the circuit is closed.

parts of electrical circuit components

The main Three Parts of an Electrical Circuit

The simplest electrical circuit has three parts - Energy Source, Conducting Path, and Load

Energy Source

In an electrical circuit, an energy source means an electrical energy source is used. The electrical energy provides the electrical power means voltage and current. The energy source applies the voltage which is can be called the electrical pressure which causes to flow of the electric current in the circuit and load. The electrical current is the rate of the flow of electrons. Electrons are available in every object meaning conductors, and load. So the electrical energy source forces electrons to flow.

There are two types of Electrical Energy sources used in electrical circuits - voltage source, and current source. A voltage source provides a constant and stable voltage level to the electrical circuit. Examples of voltage sources are Battery, Alternator, etc. The current source keeps constant the current to avoid damaging the electrical loads and to operate them properly. Generally, different types of semiconductor devices are used as current sources.

Conducting Path

It connects the electrical load with the electrical energy source. It not only connects the electrical load, in fact but it is also required to connect all the components of the electrical circuit. Different types of conducting paths are used for different electrical and electronic circuits. Metal Strips, Insulated Wires, Non-insulated wires, and Metallic rods are used as conducting paths for different purposes. So the conducting path or the conductors are the essential things in an electrical circuit that help to flow the electrical through the very parts of the circuit such as source, load, components, switches, etc.

Electrical Load

The electrical Load is the most important part of an electrical circuit. In fact, all arrangements are required to operate the electrical load properly, safely, and efficiently. An electrical Load is anything that converts electrical energy into the other form of energy. There are mainly three types of electrical loads - 1. Resistive Loads 2. Inductive Load 3. Capacitive Load

Examples of electrical loads are - Electric Motors (inductive), Electric Heaters (resistive), Lights, etc.

Different Types of Components of Electrical Circuit

There are different types of electric or electronic components are there that are used in electrical and electronic circuits. But in particular electrical circuits, the most used components are - resistors, inductors, capacitors, and diodes. Resistor, Inductor, and capacitor are the passive component whereas Diode is the active component. Electrical circuits use mostly passive components only.


The resistor is a passive device that resists the flow of current when used as a circuit component and converts the electrical energy into heat energy when used as a load. The resistor is the component that mostly wastes the electrical power in the form of heat and loss. A resistor shows the same property for both AC and DC supply.


The inductor is also a passive component that produces magnetic flux when an electric current flows through it. An inductor can block high-frequency signal or AC current and allow the low-frequency signal or DC current.


The capacitor is a passive component that blocks the low-frequency signal or DC current and allows the high-frequency signal or AC current. A capacitor has exactly the opposite characteristics of an Inductor. A Capacitor also can store electrical energy in the form of electrical charge.


The diode is an active device that allows the flow of current through it in one direction only. This means it acts as a conductor for forward current conduction and acts as an insulator for the reverse current.

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Function of Different Parts and Components of Electrical Circuit Function of Different Parts and Components of Electrical Circuit Reviewed by Author on March 03, 2021 Rating: 5
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