[Explained] Current and Voltage required to charge a Battery


Hey, again we are here to discuss a very important topic that is charging voltage for the battery. In this article, I have tried to clear your all doubts about battery charging voltage. There are so many questions like how much voltage required to charge a 6V or 12V or 24V battery, what happened if we give high charging voltage to a battery, how can I charge a battery fastly. So we will discuss all of these about battery charging. Please note that here all data are given for general understanding purposes only. Whenever you going to charge a battery, first read properly the manual for that battery provided by the supplier.

Current and Voltage required to charge battery


What is the charging of a battery?


A battery is an electrical energy storing device that can store electrical energy in form of ion or chemical bonding. So when we connect a load with a battery it converts its ion or chemical bonds into electrical energy and delivers electrical energy to the load, this is called discharging of the battery. 

When we connect the battery with a power supply or apply enough voltage across the battery it will consume electrical energy then convert into ion or chemical bonds and store it. So the process of storing electrical energy into a battery is called charging of the battery. Remember that lead-acid batteries are store electrical energy in form of chemical bonds whereas Lithium-Ion and Lithium Polymer batteries are store electrical energy in form of ion.




How much voltage required to charge a 6V battery?


Voltage requirement for charging of a 6V battery depends on different factors such as types of battery, cell type, handling and storing temperature, charging types, etc. Anyway, we will discuss it after, now let's know how much voltage require to charge a 6V battery,

Lead Acid Battery:
  • At a very low operating temperature(0 to -30 degree) 8.01V to 8.28V float voltage or 7.32V standby voltage required for a lead-acid battery.
  • At a medium operating temperature(10 to 30 degree) 7.2V to 7.5V float voltage or 6.78V standby voltage required for a lead-acid battery.
  • At a high operating temperature(30 to 60 degree) 6.75V to 7.05V float voltage required or 6.6V standby voltage for a lead-acid battery.

Lithium-Ion and Lithium Polymer Battery:

To properly charge a 6V Li-ion or Li-Polymer battery you should be required voltage around 7V to 8.4V at a nominal temperature and that voltage must be hold until the charge current has dropped to 10%  of the initial charge current.



How much voltage required to charge a 12V battery?


Now, let's go to know how much voltage required to charge a 12V battery,

Lead Acid Battery:
  • At a very low operating temperature(0 to -30 degree) 16.02V to 16.56V float voltage or 14.6V standby voltage required for a lead-acid battery.
  • At a medium operating temperature(10 to 30 degree) 14.58V to 15.18V float voltage or 13.56V standby voltage required for a lead-acid battery.
  • At a high operating temperature(30 to 60 degree) 13.5V to 14.10V float voltage or 13.2V standby voltage required for a lead-acid battery.

Lithium-Ion and Lithium Polymer Battery:

To properly charge a 12V Li-ion or Li-Polymer battery you should be required voltage around 14V to 16.8V at a nominal temperature and that voltage must be hold until the charge current has dropped to 10%  of the initial charge current.



How much voltage required to charge a 24V battery?


Now, let's go to know how much voltage required to charge a 24V battery,

Lead Acid Battery:
  • At a very low operating temperature(0 to -30 degree) 33.12V to 32.04V float voltage or 29.28V standby voltage required for a lead-acid battery.
  • At a medium operating temperature(10 to 30 degree) 29.16V to 30.36V float voltage or 27.12V standby voltage required for a lead-acid battery.
  • At a high operating temperature(30 to 60 degree) 27V to 28.2V float voltage or 26.4V standby voltage required for a lead-acid battery.

Lithium-Ion and Lithium Polymer Battery:

To properly charge a 24V Li-ion or Li-Polymer battery you should be required voltage around 32V to 33.6V at a nominal temperature and that voltage must be hold until the charge current has dropped to 10%  of the initial charge current.



Charging Voltage VS Types of Battery


There are mainly three types of battery mostly used in the market and different applications - 1. Lead-Acid battery 2. Lithium-Ion battery and 3. Lithium Polymer Battery. However, the same type of charging system and charging voltage can be used for both Li-Ion and Li-Polymer batteries. But when we compare between a lead-acid battery and a li-ion battery there are some differences between charging voltage.

Generally, for the same voltage rating, a li-ion or li-polymer battery required more voltage than a lead-acid battery.



Types of Charging VS Types of Battery


There are three types of battery charging - 1. Float charging 2. Boost charging 3. Trickle Charging
Float charging is most suitable for lead-acid batteries whereas boost charging is most suitable for Li-ion or Li-polymer batteries. However, float charging also is used for Li-ion or Li-polymer batteries. Nowadays Trickle charging is mostly used in industries for better safety, high efficiency, reliability, etc for all types of batteries although their internal circuits are different.



Battery Charging Current VS Battery Charging Voltage


In simple words, charging means increasing the battery voltage, and discharging means decreasing the battery voltage. So when a battery connected with a power supply it starts to consume current and voltage across the battery increases. At the starting of charging, the charging current is more and gradually decreasing with time. When the battery is fully charged it does not take any current.

As the float charging method is mostly used for acid batteries, it does not work with the constant current principle but lithium-ion or lithium-polymer battery uses the constant current principle. Even constant current principle must be used for the charging of li-ion or li-polymer battery because of more safety required.


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[Explained] Current and Voltage required to charge a Battery [Explained] Current and Voltage required to charge a Battery Reviewed by ETechnoG on 1/25/2021 Rating: 5
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