Hey, in this article we are going to see the functional block diagram of voltage stabilizer. Here you will find the main concept of the stabilizer working principle, stabilizer block diagram, types of voltage stabilizer, etc.
The main function of a voltage stabilizer is to provide a stable or steady-state voltage to the electrical and electronic appliances. A voltage stabilizer continuously provides a stable voltage in its output, whatever it takes in its input stable or unstable voltage.

For example, a voltage stabilizer is designed to provide 230V in its output. So it will provide continuous 230V in its output even when it gets an input voltage of 200V or 300V.

## Stabilizer Block Diagram and Working

The working principle of a voltage stabilizer is very simple, its main function is to keep stable the output voltage by increasing or decreasing the voltage level according to the unstable input voltage. Here you can see the block diagram of Voltage Stabilizer in the below figure.

As you see in the above block diagram, the Autotransformer is the main part of any stabilizer by which voltage can be increased or decreased. And this is achieved by tapping.

There is also some electronic circuitry to sense the fluctuations in input voltage and to operate the electromagnetic relay. The Comparator, which senses the input and output voltage and compares between them, and decides how much voltage is to decrease or increase to keep the output voltage constant.

For example, when the input voltage decreases from the normal value, the comparator sense and give the signal to the switching circuit to enable the electromagnetic relay so as to add more voltage from the transformer. So drop in input voltage will nothing effect on the output voltage, the output voltage remains constant at the normal value.

When the input voltage is higher than the normal value, another electromagnetic relay will turn on so as it steps down the voltage to the normal value by the autotransformer and the output voltage remains stable at the normal value.

The working of the voltage stabilizer is based on two operations, one is Buck operation and another is Boost operation.

When the input voltage is low, the stabilizer adds more voltage to keep the output voltage constant that is called the Boost operation.
When the input voltage is more than the normal value, the stabilizer decreases the voltage to keep the output voltage constant that is called Buck operation.

## Stabilizer Types

There are mainly three types of voltage stabilizers,

1. Relay types Voltage Stabilizer
2. Servo-controlled Voltage Stabilizer
3. Static Voltage Stabilizer

In relay-type voltage stabilizers, so many electromagnetic relays are there and connected to the transformer tapping. To control the output voltage they turned on one by one and maintained the output voltage.
In relay types stabilizers, accurate voltage stabilizing is not possible.

In a servo-controlled stabilizer, the Servo motor is used to move the tap on the transformer's secondary side. To maintain the voltage level, the servo motor moves the tap or arm on the secondary coil of the transformer. Servo-controlled voltage stabilizer gives more accurate voltage stabilizing than the relay-type voltage stabilizer.

Static voltage stabilizer does not have any moving parts, it uses semiconductor devices such as SCR, IGBT, Microcontroller, etc to control the transformer to stabilize the voltage. A static voltage stabilizer provides greater accuracy of voltage stabilizing. Modern static voltage stabilizers do not use autotransformers also, they have a tiny ultra high-frequency Transformer and some electronic circuits for their operation.

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Voltage Stabilizer Block Diagram, Working Principle, Types Reviewed by Author on September 12, 2020 Rating: 5