Why RCCB cannot give protection against Overload and Short Circuit Faults?


To better understand Why RCCB cannot give protection against Overload and Short Circuit Faults, you must know the simple working principle of RCCB. RCCB mainly used to sense the leakage current. RCCB stands for Residual Current Circuit Breaker. In this article, I have tried to explain the working of RCCB with diagrams, which will help you to understand why RCCB cannot work in overload and short circuit fault.


RCCB Internal Circuit Diagram


Here the simple internal circuit diagram of RCCB is given below.

RCCB Circuit Diagram


Here you can see, three coils are wound on a core. The upper coil for the incoming line, the lower coil for the return line and the middle coil is the sensing coil which connected to the relay. So when the current in incoming and return line is same, there will be no resultant flux produced because the flux produced by incoming and return will oppose each other.

But if the current in incoming and return wire is unequal, then flux also be unequal hence a resultant flux will be produced for which an emf will be produced in the sensing coil. As the sensing coil is connected to the relay, the relay will trip the RCCB and disconnect the circuit.

So, it is clear that the working of RCCB is based on Kirchoff's Current law that is the incoming current must be equal to the outgoing current in a circuit. So the simple concept is, when the current is unequal in both line it will trip and disconnect the circuit.




Why RCCB cannot give protection against Overload Fault?


The below diagram shows, there is an overload fault occurs in a circuit where RCCB is connected.

RCCB Protection


Here, the incoming current and return current are the equal even overload fault occurs. A  high current flowing through the RCCB due to overload fault but the RCCB does not trip as the current in both line is equal. Now, if the overload current exceeds the current rating of the RCCB, it will be damaged.



Why RCCB cannot give protection against Short Circuit Fault?


RCCB Protection


In this case, the concept also same as previous. During short circuit fault, a very high current flowing through the RCCB, but it does not trip as the current in both line is equal.



When RCCB will Trip?


RCCB(Residual Current Circuit Breaker)


Here you can see, the phase wire touches the earth wire for which, Current comes from the phase wire and goes back through the earth wire, not through the neutral wire. So, the current in incoming and return wire in RCCB become unequal. According to the working principle, as the current in both lines is unequal it will trip and disconnect the circuit.




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Why RCCB cannot give protection against Overload and Short Circuit Faults? Why RCCB cannot give protection against Overload and Short Circuit Faults? Reviewed by ETechnoG on 10:27 Rating: 5
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