# Solar Panel Connection Diagram in Series-Parallel Configuration

In this article, we are going to learn how to connect Solar Panels in Series-Parallel combinations and Parallel-Series Combinations. We will learn what happens if we connect multiple solar panels in Series-Parallel combinations or Parallel-Series Combinations if they have the same ratings. Also, we will learn what happens if we connect multiple solar panels in Series-Parallel combinations or Parallel-Series Combinations if they have different ratings(means voltage, current, and power).

Connecting solar panels in a Series-Parallel or Parallel-Series Combination is a versatile approach that is used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to achieve a balance between voltage and current requirements. This configuration involves grouping multiple panels into smaller sets that are connected in series, and then these sets are connected in parallel or first connected in parallel, and then these sets are connected in parallel.

## Solar Panel Connection Diagram in Series-Parallel Configuration

This configuration allows you to match the system's voltage and current requirements more closely. By connecting panels in series within a subgroup and then connecting these subgroups in parallel, you can achieve the desired voltage and current levels simultaneously.

### Connection with Same Ratings

First, of all let's see the connection diagram for wiring multiple solar panels in Series-Parallel Combination having the same ratings.

You can see in the above wiring diagram, here we have used a total of six panels where each string has three panels. All the panels have rating 12V, 50W, 4.17A

**String 1**

Three panels are connected in series so the output of string 1 will be 36V, 150W, 4.17A

**String 2**

Here, also three panels are connected in series so the output of string 2 will be 36V, 150W, 4.17A

Both strings are connected in parallel, so the

**total output of this whole series-parallel combination**will be 36V, 300W, 8.34A### Connection with Different Ratings

Now, let's see the connection diagram for wiring multiple solar panels in Series-Parallel Combination having different ratings.

You can see in the above wiring diagram, here we have used a total of six panels where each string has three panels.

**String 1**

Three panels are connected in series. Remember that as we already learn in our previous articles, when we connect multiple solar panels in series their current ratings must be the same even different voltage and power ratings can be acceptable.

So here,

Panel 1 = 12V, 50W, 4.17A

Panel 2 = 24V, 100W, 4.17A

Panel 3 = 6V, 25W, 4.17A

The total output of string 1 will be 42V, 175W, 4.17A

**String 2**

Here also, three panels have different voltage and power ratings but the same current rating,

Panel 1 = 24V, 100W, 4.17A

Panel 2 = 6V, 25W, 4.17A

Panel 3 = 12V, 50W, 4.17A

So, the total output of String 2 will be 42V, 175W, 4.17A

Now, both strings are connected in parallel so the total output of the whole Series-Parallel combination will be 42V, 350W, 8.34A

Here, you can see we have selected panels and connected them in such a way that the current ratings of all the series-connected panels have the same ratings and the output voltage of both strings is equal(here 42V). As we already learn in our previous articles, when we connect multiple solar panels in parallel their voltage ratings must be the same even different current and power ratings can be acceptable. So when we connect multiple strings in parallel we have to consider each string as a single panel.

So, the conclusion is when we connect multiple solar panels having different ratings in a series-parallel combination, their current, voltage, and power calculation is very complex and we need to give extra effort. So it is always recommended to use solar panels having the same ratings when connecting in any configuration.

## Solar Panel Connection Diagram in Parallel-Series Configuration

This configuration also allows you to match the system's voltage and current requirements more closely. By connecting panels in parallel within a subgroup and then connecting these subgroups in series, you can achieve the desired voltage and current levels simultaneously.

### Connection with Same Ratings

First, of all let's see the connection diagram for wiring multiple solar panels in Parallel-Series Combination having the same ratings.

You can see in the above wiring diagram, here we have used a total of six panels where each string has three panels. All the panels have rating 12V, 50W, 4.17A

**String 1**

Three panels are connected in parallel so the output of string 1 will be 12V, 150W, 12.5A

**String 2**

Here, also three panels are connected in parallel so the output of string 2 will be 12V, 150W, 12.5A

Both strings are connected in series, so the total output of this whole Parallel-Series combination will be 24VV, 300W, 12.5A

### Connection with Different Ratings

Now, let's see the connection diagram for wiring multiple solar panels in Parallel-Series Combination having different ratings.

You can see in the above wiring diagram, here we have used a total of six panels where each string has three panels.

**String 1**

Three panels are connected in parallel. Remember that as we already learn in our previous articles, when we connect multiple solar panels in parallel their voltage ratings must be the same even different current and power ratings can be acceptable.

So here,

Panel 1 = 12V, 50W, 4.17A

Panel 2 = 12V, 100W, 8.34A

Panel 3 = 12V, 25W, 2.08A

The total output of string 1 will be 12V, 175W, 14.59A

**String 2**

Here also, three panels have different current and power ratings but the same voltage rating,

Panel 1 = 24V, 50W, 2.08A

Panel 2 = 24V, 100W, 4.17A

Panel 3 = 24V, 200W, 8.34A

So, the total output of String 2 will be 24V, 350W, 14.59A

Now, both strings are connected in series so the total output of the whole Parallel-Series combination will be 36V, 525W, 14.59A

Here, you can see we have selected panels and connected them in such a way that the voltage ratings of all the parallel-connected panels have the same ratings and the output current of both strings is equal(here 14.59A). As we already learn in our previous articles, when we connect multiple solar panels in series their current ratings must be the same even different voltage and power ratings can be acceptable. So when we connect multiple strings in series we have to consider each string as a single panel.

So, the conclusion is when we connect multiple solar panels having different ratings in a parallel-series combination, their current, voltage, and power calculation is very complex and we need to give extra effort. So it is always recommended to use solar panels having the same ratings when connecting in any configuration.

## Difference Between Series-Parallel and Parallel-Series Connection

Series-Parallel and Parallel-Series are both types of configuration that are used to match the required output voltage and current.

You can see in the above Figure 1, we have connected six 12V, 50W panels in a series-parallel configuration where we got the output 36V, 300W, 8.34A and you can see in the above Figure 3, we have connected the same six 12V, 50W panels in a parallel-series combination, where we got the output 24V, 300W, 12.5A.

So, the series-parallel configuration can be used when high voltage and low current are required and the parallel-series configuration can be used when low voltage and high current are required.

## Calculate how many panels are required for Series and Parallel Combinations

Let's assume, we have all the panels having ratings 12V, 50W, and 4.17A with us.

**Example 1: We want to get output 36V, 300W**

First, we need to calculate the required output current which is 300W/36V = 8.34A

Now, we need 36V/12V = 3 Panels which are to be connected in series to match the output voltage

Our panels are rated 4.17A current and we need 8.34A output current.

So we need 8.34A/4.17A = 2 panels which are to be connected in parallel to match the output current

The total panel required to build the whole series-parallel combination = no. of series connected panels X no. of parallel connected panel = 3 X 2 = 6

So, in this case, we need to connect 6 solar panels in a series-parallel combination. Where 2 strings are connected in parallel and each string has 3 panels in series. (refer to the above figure.01)

If you want to get the same outputs with the same no of panels using a parallel-series combination, then connect 3 strings in series where each string have 2 panels in parallel.

**Example 2: We want to get output 24V, 300W**

First, we need to calculate the required output current which is 300W/24V = 12.5A

Now, we need 24V/12V = 2 Panels which are to be connected in series to match the output voltage

Our panels are rated 4.17A current and we need 12.5A output current.

So we need 12.5A/4.17A = 3 panels which are to be connected in parallel to match the output current

The total panel required to build the whole series-parallel combination = no. of series connected panels X no. of parallel connected panel = 2 X 3 = 6

So, in this case, we need to connect 6 solar panels in a series-parallel combination. Where 3 strings are connected in series and each string has 2 panels in series.

If you want to get the same outputs with the same no of panels using a parallel-series combination, then connect 2 strings in series where each string have 3 panels in parallel. (refer to the above figure.03)

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Solar Panel Connection Diagram in Series-Parallel Configuration
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August 17, 2023
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