What is Fire Alarm System? How it works? Explained with Diagram


The fire alarm system is an electrical or electronic system that alert or notifies peoples when an emergency accident such as a fire happens. Generally, the fire alarm system is installed in a building to detect the fire anywhere in that building. The fire alarm system has two main parts - a detection system and a notification or alarm system. Using the detection system, it senses the fire or fire-related incidents, and using the alarm system it notifies the people.

The fire alarm can be enabled automatically or manually. The heat detectors, smoke detectors, or other detection sensors(generally called initiating devices) enable the fire alarm system automatically. On the other hand, Manual Call Point(MCP), pulling systems are used to enable the fire alarm system manually. The alarm system uses different types of speakers, hooters, sounders to alert people using voice. The modern fire alarm system also uses lighting, displays to alert people through visuals.


Fire Alarm System Block Diagram


Here, you can see the block diagram of the fire alarm system that will help you to understand the working of the fire alarm system very easily.

Fire Alarm System Block Diagram, block diagram of fire alarm system, How a Fire Alarm System Works


Control Panel


The Control panel in the fire alarm system (known as FACP or FACU) is the main hub or brain of the whole system. All the initiating devices, notification devices, and other components are connected to this control panel. It receives signals from the initiating devices and sends signals to the notification devices. In this control panel, we can see all the information and also can control all the devices connected to it. The control panel takes the main electrical power supply(120V for some countries, 240V for other countries) and provides it to other devices. The control panel of the fire alarm system is also connected to a secondary backup power supply to utilize it when the main power supply is not available. Generally, a battery, inverter, and rectifier circuits are used for the backup power source.


Communicating Devices


Communicating devices are those through which we can communicate with the control panel of the fire alarm system or take information or data from it. Repeater panel is an example of a communicating device through which we can observe or control the fire alarm system. A modern fire alarm system allows connecting with computers and networks also.


Initiating Devices


Initiating devices are those that detect the fire or any environmental changes during fire-related accidents and sends signals to the main control panel. The common examples of initiating devices are Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Dust detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, etc.


Notification Devices


Notification devices are those through which the fire alarm system alert peoples. Generally, the notification devices required an additional power supply from the control panel. During any accident or emergency cases, when the control panel receives signals from the initiating devices, it starts to send signals to the notification devices.


 How a Fire Alarm System Works?


The basic working principle of a fire alarm system is that when any fire-related accident happens the initiating devices sense the environmental changes and send signals to the control panel with the location of the accidental place. After receiving the signal, the control panel activates the notification devices to alert people to go far away from that place. Safety officers, supervisors can see the location in the control panel and go to the accidental place and take further actions.


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What is Fire Alarm System? How it works? Explained with Diagram What is Fire Alarm System? How it works? Explained with Diagram Reviewed by Author on 11/29/2021 Rating: 5
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