Electric Motor Control Procedure, Methods, Devices, Circuits

Electric Motor Control Procedure, Methods, Devices, Circuits

Hey, in this article we are going to discuss the controlling of Electric Motor. Electrical Motor is a machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. An electrical motor is a rotating machine used in various applications such as lifting, actuating, pumping, etc. Controlling an electric motor is a very important factor according to its application areas, power supplies, and function. The controlling of an electric motor includes - speed controls, start-stop operation, torque control, precision control, direction control, protection against fault, and increased efficiency. Nowadays, the electric motor control system is used everywhere from your home ceiling fan, and mixer grinder to industrial applications.

Different types of Electric Motor Control

There are various factors and aspects of controlling a motor. There are different types of electrical motors are available such as AC Motors, DC Motors, Universal Motors, Synchronous Motors, and Induction Motors. Controlling of an electric motor is depends upon the requirements and applications. Anyway, the common and possible types of controlling an electric motor are explained below.

Motor On/Off or Start/Stop Control

There are two methods to start or stop a motor - 1. Automatic 2. Manual

Manual On/Off control does not require more complex circuitry. A switch or starter is enough for the manual operation of a motor and they work in an open-loop system. But the automatic start-stop control requires more complex circuitry, sensors, timers, etc and they work in a closed-loop system. Our kitchen appliances such as mixer grinders, juice maker, and fans are examples of manual start-stop operation, and the automatic water level controlling system, and air conditioning system are examples of automatic operation and controlling system of motor.

Motor Speed Control

Controlling the speed of the motor is also a very important factor. Speed control of the motor is required Fans, Electric vehicles, machinery, etc. The methods, procedures, and circuitry, of motor speed control, is a very big topic. Examples of motor speed control we can see in fan regulators, washing machines, electric bikes, etc. Both electrical and electronic methods are available for the speed control of motors. Electrical methods used passive components and devices such as resistors whereas electronic methods used active semiconductor devices such as MOSFET, IGBTs, etc. Electronic methods are the most efficient and have minimal power loss. Nowadays, electronic methods are mos

Motor Torque Control

Motor Torque control is also a very important factor. According to the connected load to the motor, torque should be controlled. For some applications heavy torque is required at starting, for some applications medium torque is required for the whole running time, somewhere automatic torque control is required. The automatic torque control system works in a closed-loop system, where torque will be adjusted automatically when the load varies. An automatic torque control system requires so much electronic circuitry, sensors, etc.

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Precision or Servo Control of Motor

Precision control of the motor is the process of controlling the part of the motor rotation. In normal conditions, a motor rotates in 360 degrees. But if we need only 180-degree rotation or 90-degree rotation or 60-degree rotation then what to do. Here, the precision control system comes to a point. Stepper motor and servo motor are examples of this type of motor control. This type of controlling is required in robotic applications, actuating, surgery, etc.

Direction of Rotation Control of Motor

The direction of the rotation of the motor is also very important in lathe machines, lifting, cranes, elevators, and other industrial machinery. The direction of rotation indicates the forward and reverse rotation of the motor. Here also two methods are available for controlling the direction of the rotation of the motor - manual and automatic. Manual operation can be done by an electrical circuit having contactors, push-button switches, etc. Automatic operation can be done by electronic circuits having different types of components, sensors, limit switches, etc.

Motor Safety Control and Protection

Motor protection and safety is also a very important factor. This includes protecting a motor from overload faults, short circuit faults, leakage current faults, overheating, overrunning, etc. For industrial applications, overload protection systems, and short circuit protection systems are mostly used. For domestic applications, leakage current protection is a very important factor. It is related to the direct human electrical shock.

Electric Motor Control and Protective Devices

Here, is the list of the most usable electrical motor control and protective devices such as,
  • Motor Starters - DOL, Star-Delta, Rotor Resistance Starter
  • MPCB - Motor Protection Circuit Breaker
  • Single Phasing Preventer
  • Electronic Motor Driver, Motor Controller

Motor Control Circuits

Nowadays, so many compact devices are available for the controlling of the motor. But in older days, different electrical circuits are used such as reverse forward circuits, direct online starting circuits, relay circuits, etc.

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Electric Motor Control Procedure, Methods, Devices, Circuits Electric Motor Control Procedure, Methods, Devices, Circuits Reviewed by Author on November 02, 2021 Rating: 5
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