Electric Motor Control Procedure, Methods, Devices, Circuits


Electric Motor Control Procedure, Methods, Devices, Circuits


Hey, in this article we are going to discuss about the controlling of Electric Motor. Electrical Motor is a machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. An electrical motor is a rotating machine used in various applications such as lifting, actuating, pumping, etc. Controlling an electric motor is a very important factor according to their application areas, power supplies, function. The controlling of an electric motor includes - speed controls, Start Stop operation, torque control, precision control, direction control, protection against fault, increase efficiency. Nowadays, the electric motor control system is used in everywhere from your home ceiling fan, mixer grinder to industrial applications.


Different types of Electric Motor Control


There are various factors and aspects of controlling a motor. There are different types of electrical motors are available such as AC Motor, DC Motor, Universal Motor, Synchronous Motor, Induction Motor. Controlling of an electric motor is depends upon the requirements, applications. Anyway, the common and possible types of controlling an electric motor are explained below.


Motor On/Off or Start/Stop Control


There are two methods to start or stop a motor - 1. Automatic 2. Manual

Manual On/Off control does not require more complex circuitry. A switch or starter is enough for the manual operation of a motor and they work in an open-loop system. But the automatic start-stop control requires more complex circuitry, sensors, timers, etc and they work in a closed-loop system. Our kitchen appliances such as mixer grinders, juice maker, fans are examples of manual start-stop operation, and the automatic water level controlling system, air conditioning system are examples of automatic operation and controlling system of motor.


Motor Speed Control


Controlling the speed of the motor is also a very important factor. Speed control of the motor is required Fans, Electric vehicles, machinery, etc. The methods, procedure, circuitry, of motor speed control, is a very big topic. Examples of motor speed control we can see in fan regulators, washing machines, electric bikes, etc. Both electrical and electronic methods are available for the speed control of motors. Electrical methods used passive components and devices such as resistors whereas electronic methods used active semiconductor devices such as MOSFET, IGBTs, etc. Electronic methods are most efficient and have minimal power loss. Nowadays, electronic methods are mos


Motor Torque Control


Motor Torque control is also a very important factor. According to the connected load to the motor, torque should be controlled. For some applications heavy torque is required at starting, for some applications medium torque is required for the whole running time, somewhere automatic torque control is required. The automatic torque control system works in a closed-loop system, where torque will be adjusted automatically when the load varies. An automatic torque control system requires so much electronic circuitry, sensors, etc.


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Precision or Servo Control of Motor


Precision control of motor is the process to control the part of the motor rotation. In normal conditions, a motor rotates in 360 degrees. But if we need only 180-degree rotation or 90-degree rotation or 60-degree rotation then what to do. Here, the precision control system comes to the point. Stepper motor and servo motor are examples of this type of motor control. This type of controlling is required in robotic applications, actuating, surgery, etc.


Direction of Rotation Control of Motor


The direction of the rotation of the motor is also very important in lathe machines, lifting, cranes, elevators, and other industrial machinery. The direction of rotation indicates the forward and reverse rotation of the motor. Here also two methods are available for controlling the direction of the rotation of the motor - manual and automatic. Manual operation can be done by an electrical circuit having contactors, push-button switches, etc. Automatic operation can be done by electronic circuits having different types of components, sensors, limit switches, etc.


Motor Safety Control and Protection


Motor protection and safety is also a very important factor. This includes protecting a motor from overload fault, short circuit fault, leakage current fault, overheating, overrunning, etc. For industrial applications, overload protection systems, short circuit protection systems are mostly used. For domestic applications, leakage current protection is a very important factor. It is related to the direct human electrical shock.


Electric Motor Control and Protective Devices


Here, the list of most usable electrical motor control and protective devices such as,
  • Motor Starters - DOL, Star-Delta, Rotor Resistance Starter
  • MPCB - Motor Protection Circuit Breaker
  • Single Phasing Preventer
  • Electronic Motor Driver, Motor Controller


Motor Control Circuits


Nowadays, so many compact devices are available for the controlling of the motor. But in older days, different electrical circuits are used such as reverse forward circuits, direct online starting circuits, relay circuits, etc.


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Electric Motor Control Procedure, Methods, Devices, Circuits Electric Motor Control Procedure, Methods, Devices, Circuits Reviewed by Author on 11/03/2021 Rating: 5
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