Short Circuit Fault Causes, Effects, Protection


An electrical fault can cause many effects on the whole electrical system, loads, equipment. So it is most important to know the reason or causes of an electrical fault and how to take protection against that electrical fault. Short Circuit Fault is a very important and harmful electrical fault. It affects the electrical system much more than other types of electrical faults. There are many types of electrical faults. In this article, we are going to discuss the causes of Short Circuit faults, the effects of short circuit faults, and how to take protection against short circuit faults.

Short Circuit Fault Causes, Effects, Protection



What is Short Circuit Fault?


In simple words, the electrical fault causes the flow of current at infinity and makes the voltage across the power supply Zero is called Short Circuit Fault. Short Circuit fault creates a very low resistance or impedance between the two points of a voltage source or potential difference. So, due to this a very large current will flow from the higher potential to lower potential during the short circuit fault. Short Circuit fault is the most common fault in the electrical and electronic circuit.

You can understand the short circuit fault easily with an example. For example, if you take a battery and connect the two terminals of the battery together then it will create a short circuit, and a huge current will flow from the higher potential of the battery to the lower potential. So, when this type of fault occurs in the electrical or electronic circuit accidentally, then it will be called a Short Circuit fault.



Causes of Short Circuit Fault


1. In a DC circuit when the positive and negative are accidentally connected or touched to each other then the short circuit fault occurs. Positive and negative may be touched to each other due to insulation failure of the conductor, wrong connection, etc.

2. In electronic PCB boards short circuit fault occurs due to excess soldering, bridging, terminals of the components touched, etc.

3. In a single-phase AC circuit when the phase and neutral accidentally connected or touched each other, the short circuit fault occurs. It also may happen due to insulation failure, wrong connection, failure of load resistance, etc.

4. In a three-phase AC Circuit, when three phases touched to each other or touched with neutral then the short circuit fault occurs.

5. In transmission and distribution lines also short circuit fault occurs due to the failure of insulators, Line conductor touched to each other, etc.

6. Short Circuit fault can occur in transformers or electrical motors due to insulation failure or breakdown of the conductors.



Effects of Short Circuit Fault


1. Short circuit fault mostly affects the source of power supply than the load. For example, a short circuit fault can damage the battery, rectifier circuit if that circuit is DC.

2. Short circuit fault causes to flow a very high current which further creates heat, explosion, and burning of conductors, electric cables, etc.

3. Short circuit fault makes the power supply voltage zero, so all loads connected with that power supply will be affected, they will not get the power supply.

4. Short circuit fault can create ARC, and it further turns to fire, so a short circuit fault is very dangerous.

5. Short circuit faults can harm machines, equipment, and even humans also.



Protection Against Short Circuit Fault


A short circuit fault is very dangerous, and it can create many harmful effects, so we must have to take protection against short circuit fault.

We can prevent the electrical system, devices, equipment from the short circuit fault by using protective devices such as circuit breakers. MCB(Miniature Circuit Breaker), MCCB(Moulded Case Circuit Breaker), VCB(Vacuum Circuit Breaker), ACB(Air Circuit Breaker) are the electrical protective devices that can be used to take protection from Short Circuit Fault.


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Short Circuit Fault Causes, Effects, Protection Short Circuit Fault Causes, Effects, Protection Reviewed by ETechnoG on 3/01/2021 Rating: 5
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