Earth Fault Causes, Effects, Example, Explanation


Earth Fault causes, effects


The connection of noncurrent carrying part of an Electrical Equipment to Earth is called Earthing. During installation, most of the electrical equipment, machine's metallic body is connected to the earth to reduce the chances of electrical shock which is called body earthing. Electrical Earthing mainly done for safety purposes.

Earthing system provides a very low resistance, when accidentally any live or phase wire touch to the body of the electrical equipment, fault current will be grounded or discharged through the earthing conductor and protect human from electrical shock.


Causes of Earth Fault


Earthing is the connection of the metallic body of any electrical equipment, device or machine to the earth. So if accidentally earth conductor damage, then that device not connected to the earth so there is no safety for electrical shock.

Mainly the earning fault indicates the fault between line and earth.

The main cause of earth fault in an overhead transmission or distribution line is the failure of the insulator. The insulator is used in an overhead transmission line to provide the insulation between the live conductor and the metallic tower which already connected to the earth. So if insulation becomes fail, the fault current will flow through the live conductor and the metallic tower to the earth.


Line to Earth Fault


As the metallic body of any electrical equipment or device is connected to the earth. So if the live or phase wire touch to the body of the electrical equipment then a huge current will flow through the phase and earth conductor which is known as Line to Earth Fault.



When the line to earth fault occurs, a huge amount of current flows so there will be a large voltage drop.


Effects of Earth Faults


When Earth faults occur a huge amount of current flow through the phase and earthing conductor and a large voltage drop occurs. So this will affect the other loads and it may cause the burning of phase or line conductor.

Earth fault causes huge sparking, Heat, fire, etc.


Earth Fault Protection


Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker or ELCB is used to give protection against Earth Fault. It is a voltage-operated device.  When earth fault occurs a voltage appears across it and it tripped and disconnects the main power supply.

In the below figure, you can understand the working principle of an ELCB easily.

Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB)


Here, you can see the Relay of the ELCB is connected between the metallic body of the motor and the earth or ground. In the normal condition, the circuit breaker closed condition so the motor getting power supply. When earth fault occurs, the fault current will flow through the earthing wire and a voltage will appear across the relay coil and the relay will trip the circuit breaker. Thus the motor will disconnect from the main power supply during the Earth fault.


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Earth Fault Causes, Effects, Example, Explanation Earth Fault Causes, Effects, Example, Explanation Reviewed by ETechnoG on 3/11/2020 Rating: 5
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