Induction Motor Advantages and Disadvantages Explained

You know nowadays Induction motors are widely used than other DC and AC motors everywhere. There are huge applications of induction motors due to their special advantages and features. Not advantages, induction motor has some disadvantages also. So in this article, I have noted some important advantages of induction motor and also some disadvantages of induction motor. 

An induction motor is an electrical ac machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy and it works in the principle of electromagnetic induction. There are two types of induction motor - single phase induction motor and three-phase induction motor. Below all points are applicable for both types of motors.

Induction Motor Advantages Disadvantages, advantages of induction motor

Advantages of Induction Motor

Some advantages of induction motor compared to DC motors are,

1. Induction motors do not require brushes, slip rings, and commutator arrangements. This means they very simple in construction. As they have very few parts, induction motor is very lighter in weight than other motor.

2. As there is no brush and slip ring arrangement, so mechanical loss or frictional loss is very low, hence the efficiency of the induction motor is very high. The efficiency of an induction motor can be expected between 85 to 95 percent.

3. There is no special arrangement is required for the winding to create north poles and south poles like a DC motor. It automatically creates poles with the polarity of the ac supply.

4. As the induction motor does not have brushes, slip rings, commutator so it is a very low-cost machine compared to dc motor or other motors.

5. Although a single-phase induction motor required starting arrangement like a capacitor, but three-phase induction motors are self-starting.

6. Induction motors are very simple in construction so the maintenance of induction motor is very less compared to other motors.

7. As induction motor operated at AC supply, so there is very low I^2R loss occurs compared to DC motors. Also, the Induction motor produce less heat than DC motors.

8. Induction motor provides a very good speed variation, and it can be operated at any environmental condition even an induction motor can be operated at 400-degree temperature also. 

9. The starting method of induction motors is very simple. This means induction motor starters are very simple than DC Motor starters.

10. Induction motor creates very low noise, vibration, etc. Induction motor can be designed up to a very high power rating.

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Disadvantages of Induction Motor

1. The main disadvantage of an induction motor is, it draws a very high inrush current during its starting, for this reason, it makes a dip in voltage during starting which can affect other electrical loads connected to the same power source. So the induction motor must require a starter to control the current during its starting.

2. Induction motor provides a very poor starting torque, especially the squirrel cage induction motor provides low starting torque. And the speed control of the induction motor is more complicated than other motors like DC Motors. Nowadays High-Cost device VFD(Variable Frequency Drives) are used to control the speed of the induction motors.

3. Although the induction motor creates a very low I^2R loss but it creates a high magnetizing loss in its air gap. The induction motor always causes the lagging power factor. So when we use induction motors, power factor improvement must be used to avoid penalty.

4. Although the three-phase induction motor is self-starting but the single-phase induction is not self-starting, it required some auxiliaries like capacitors for its initial starting.

5. Due to poor starting torque, induction motors are cannot be used for lifting, forcing applications. Induction motor must need a starting arrangement such as a starter when connected to heavy load.

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Induction Motor Advantages and Disadvantages Explained Induction Motor Advantages and Disadvantages Explained Reviewed by Author on February 24, 2021 Rating: 5
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