[Explained] Main Components of CPU and their Functions

Hey, let's see the main components of CPU and their functions. In this article, you will find a detailed explanation of the main CPU Components. CPU is the main part or brain of any programmable device such as a Computer, Laptop, smartphone, etc. CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. In a smart programmable device, only the CPU performs the main task to complete the aim of that device. Other components or circuits just help to give input and output.

Functions of CPU

1. All the instructions and data are stored in memory. So at first, the CPU fetches or takes the data and instructions from the memory.

2. When we give any instruction through input devices then, the input signals are taken by the CPU through the input unit or input module.

3. After fetching the data or instruction, the CPU decodes those instructions into binary to understand what the task is to be performed.

4. After decoding the instruction, the CPU starts executing the program. CPU performs arithmetic and logical calculations, moving of data, etc.

5. After executing the program CPU gives output to the output module and then the output module generates the appropriate signal to the output devices. CPU also stores the data in memory after completion of the task.

So the main functions of the CPU are to Fetch data, decode, execute, and store.

Main Components of CPU

The main components of CPU are,

1.      Control Unit
2.      Arithmetic and Logic Unit or ALU
3.      Memory or Storage Unit

The CPU Components are shown in the below figure.

Components of CPU, Function of CPU

The function of Each Component of CPU

As you see in the above figure, the CPU has the main three components. Their functions are explained below.

Control Unit

The control unit or control unit contains many controlling circuits, some of them shown in the above figure such as the Clock Circuit, Latch Circuit, Reset Circuit, etc. The main function of the control unit is to provide the required controlling signal to each part and individual circuits of the CPU. It provides hold, reset, the clock signal to each part of the CPU. In simple words, the control unit fulfills the all requirements of the CPU to perform a task.

For example, the data is to be fetched from the cache memory to ALU. So in this case, the control unit provides a synchronized clock signal to both for proper movement of data.

ALU( Arithmetic and Logic Unit)

As its name suggests it has two sections, one is Arithmetic Unit another is Logic Unit. We know that the CPU performs both arithmetic and logic operations.

The Arithmetic unit in ALU performs all the arithmetic operations such as Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, etc. 

The interesting point is that the CPU performs all the tasks using the addition technique. For example, if we give instructions to perform (2*3). It solves this problem by (2+2+2)= 6

CPU performs all the complex operations using the above arithmetic operations.

Another Unit that is Logic Unit performs all the logical operations such as Rotate operation, AND operation, OR operation, comparing, selecting, etc.

Memory Unit

This is the Storage unit where the data and instructions are stored. The older CPU has only Registers as the memory but modern CPUs also contain the Cache Memory which is very fast semiconductor memory. 

The memory size inside the CPU is very small and very fast. mainly all the data and instructions are stored in primary (RAM, ROM) and secondary memory(Hard Disk). CPU  fetches the data from those memories and stores it in its own memory(registers and cache memory) during the operation.

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[Explained] Main Components of CPU and their Functions [Explained] Main Components of CPU and their Functions Reviewed by Author on June 12, 2019 Rating: 5
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