Electrical Wiring System in Car

Electrical Wiring System in Car

Electrical Wiring System in Car with single Wire.Car Electrical Wiring System.

Today we are going to learn a very important and interesting Topic Electrical Wiring Systems in Car.
If I ask what type of power supply(AC or DC) is used in a Car. Some of the people will say that DC and some of the people will say AC but I will say that both AC and DC. I have tried to convince you of the basic concepts of Electrical Wiring System in Car in this article. 

Remember that I describe the Electrical Wiring System in Mechanically Driving Cars, not Electric Cars. I already posted the article How Do Electrical Cars work?

The parts of the Electrical Wiring System in Car:

  • Battery.
  • Charging System.
  • Alternator
  • Self Starter
  • Ignition System.
  • Lighting and other Auxilliary equipment systems.


If you do not know then know that each car has a battery of 12V or 24V. Most of the modern cars have a 12V battery. Now you can ask that if the cars mechanically drive then why do they have Battery? The answer is for the starting system, Ignition System, and lighting system battery is required.

The charging system in Car:

As the cars have the battery so a charging system is required. For the charging the battery the car has an alternator that is connected to the Engine. When the car is running the alternator generates an AC power supply which is used to charge the battery after rectification. The rectifier is installed inside the alternator. The alternator also has a relay mechanism inside it that disconnects the battery from the alternator when the battery is fully charged.

Engine Starting system in Car:

A DC motor is also used to start the engine taking power supply from the battery which is known as the self-starter. 

Ignition System in Car:

As we know for the operation of Engine a spark is needed inside the cylinder of the Engine at the appropriate time. The ignition system increases the battery voltage by approximately more than 20KV to produce the Spark.

Lighting and others Auxilliary equipment system:

You may see Light and many other auxiliary items like heating and ventilation systems, electrically-operated windows, and door-locking actuators, are installed in the Car. For the operation of this equipment Electric Power supply is needed which is taken from the alternator and the battery.

Electrical Wiring System in Car with Single Wire:

I hope you have understood the parts of the car electric wiring system. Now we will discuss the Electrical Wiring System in Car with a single Wire. You may see the lights and other equipment are connected with a single wire. I mean, as we know each electric load needs two wires one positive wire and one negative wire, but in the car, each load is connected through one wire only positive wire and the other terminal is connected to the body of the car.

Electrical Wiring System in Car with single Wire.Car Electrical Wiring System.

In the car, the metallic body is used as a conductor which is the negative wire or return wire. The negative terminal of the battery is connected to the body of the car and the negative terminal of each load is also connected to the body of the car. Thus the circuit is completed by the metallic body of the car.

Now you can say why the metallic body of the car is used as the return conductor. There is some reason to use the metallic body of the car as the return conductor which are given below.

Why the body of the Car is used as the Return Conductor?

  1. Less conductor required.
  2. As fewer conductors are required the circuits will be simple.
  3. Easily a fault can be detected.
  4. A high amount of current can flow through it so we do not need thick conductors.

Electrical Wiring System in Car-You must know, car electrical wiring system

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Electrical Wiring System in Car Electrical Wiring System in Car Reviewed by Author on November 12, 2018 Rating: 5
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