Permanent Magnet VS Electromagnet Example, Applications, Properties

Permanent Magnet vs Electromagnet

A magnet is anything(an object or material) that can generate a magnetic field that forces to pull ferromagnetic materials such as Iron, Steel, and nickel towards it as well as attracts or repels other magnets. A magnet only attracts the ferromagnetic materials it never repels them but the same pole of two different magnets repels whereas opposite poles attract to each other.

There are mainly two types of Magnets - 1. Permanent Magnet  2. Electromagnet. Both of them have a huge application in different places. A permanent magnet can be found in the form of a material or object whereas an electromagnet is made using coils. In this article, you will know permanent magnet and electromagnet examples, applications, advantages, and properties.

Permanent Magnet Properties

Permanent Magnets are made up of a combination of ferromagnetic materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt, etc. Neodymium magnets are very popular for their higher strength although neodymium is a rare earth material.

The properties of a Permanent Magnet are,

1. A permanent magnet has fixed poles(north and south poles), and we can not change it.

2. It generates the magnetic field itself and is independent of any external factors.

3. The strength and area of the magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet are always constant and it can not be changed.

4. It does not lose its property permanently if we break it into pieces.

5. But once a permanent magnet loses its property aging it can not be recovered.

Permanent Magnet Examples

Some common examples of permanent magnets are,
  • Speaker backside magnet
  • Attractable tools such as screwdrivers
  • An alloy of Aluminum, Nickel, and Cobalt known as Alnico
  • Ferrites

Permanent Magnet Applications

Permanent magnets are used in,
  • Speaker
  • PMDC Motors
  • Generators
  • PMMC measuring instruments
  • Mobile Phones
  • Analog Clocks
  • Hard Drives
  • Magnetic hooks or Closures
  • Credit Cards, Debit Cards, ATM Cards
  • Microphones

Electromagnet Properties

  1. Magnetic properties are not permanent it depends upon the applied voltage and current.
  2. Poles can be changed at any time by changing the polarity of the power supply.
  3. Magnetic strength also can be varied by varying the applied power supply.
  4. Soft materials such as copper coils are used to make electromagnets.
  5. It can generate heat as a continuous current flowing through this.

Electromagnet Examples

Some common examples of electromagnets are,
  • Solenoid
  • Relay Coil
  • The voice coil of a speaker
  • Toroid Coil

Electromagnet Applications

Electromagnets are used in,
  1. Electric Motors
  2. Transformers
  3. Magnetic Locks
  4. Electromagnetic Actuators
  5. Electric Bells
  6. Particle Accelerators

The difference between Permanent Magnet and Electromagnet

Permanent Magnet


Made of hard materials

Made of soft materials

Magnetic Property is permanent.

Magnetic property Temporary.

Magnetic property independent.

Magnetic Property depends upon the electrical power supply.

Magnetic poles cannot be changed.

Magnetic Poles can be interchanged.

Magnetic strength cannot be varied.

Magnetic strength can be varied.

It can be installed in a very compact place.

It requires some space.

Here, magnetic strength depends upon its size.

Here, magnetic strength mainly depends upon the power supply.

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Permanent Magnet VS Electromagnet Example, Applications, Properties Permanent Magnet VS Electromagnet Example, Applications, Properties Reviewed by Author on October 23, 2022 Rating: 5
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