An electrical machine or electric machine is anything that reduces human effort with the help of electrical energy and converts electrical energy into mechanical energy or mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Most of the electrical machines are work in the principle of electromagnetism or electromagnetic induction or electrostatic energy or electromechanical force. Among others, electrical energy provides the most advantages. It is easy to transfer, convert, and even store. The electrical machine or electromechanical machine allows more precise control over pure mechanical machines.

## Basics of Electrical Machine

As the electrical machine converts electrical energy into mechanical energy or mechanical energy into electrical energy, it has an arrangement where the electric current can flow. An electrical machine also may have mechanical parts. An electric may operate with a single principle or the combination of different principles. An electric machine may not be a stand alone device it may be a circuit, large arrangement, etc.

According to the power supply required for operation, the electrical machine is mainly divided into three major parts -
1. AC Machine
2. DC Machine
3. Universal Machine
AC machines are those that operate with alternating current or AC power supply and DC machines are those that operate with direct current or DC power supply. On the other hand, Universal machines are those that can operate with both AC and DC power supplies.

According to function, the electric machine can divide into two major types,
1. Static Machine
2. Rotating Machine
Static machines are those that have no rotating parts such as a transformer and the rotating machine are those that have rotating parts such as electric motors. The transformer basically works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. Here two coils are magnetically linked to each other. Here, electrical energy is transmitted from one coil to another coil by changing voltage and current but keeping constant power and frequency.

The common and well-known examples of electrical machines are,
• Electric Motor
• Electric Generator
• Electric Transformer

### Electric Motor

Electric Motor is a machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Basically, it creates a rotating motion when electrical power is applied to it. The electric motor has a stator part and a rotor part. The rotor parts rotate. There are a lot of types of electric motor that works on different principles. But the primary principle is electromagnetism and electromagnetic induction.

### Electric Generator

An electric generator is a machine just opposite to an electric motor. It converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy. When the rotor of the generator is rotated using a prime mover it generates electricity in the form of alternating current or direct current. DC generator generates electricity in the form of DC supply whereas AC generator generates electricity in form of the AC supply.

### Transformer

A transformer is also an electrical machine that transfers electrical energy by changing the voltage level. It is a static machine that means it does not have any rotating parts. Basically, it has two inductive coils or winding that are primary winding and secondary winding. The primary winding is connected to the power supply and the secondary winding is connected to the load. There is no electrical connection between primary and secondary winding. Electrical energy transfer with the help of mutual inductance.

Some other examples of electric machines are Eddy current dynamometer, eddy current clutch, and eddy current brake.

## Applications of Electric Machine

Electric machines are used everywhere. From our daily house appliances, and kitchen appliances to industrial appliances everywhere electric machines are used. For example, in your mixer grinder, an electric motor is used. The electrical motor is used in cranes, elevators, lifts, lathe machines, etc. Electrical transformers are used in substations, power generating stations, electrical appliances, etc. The electric generator is used in power plants for electrical power generation purposes, and even small generators are used for our domestic purpose also.