Why Three Phase Induction Motor Self-Starting but Synchronous Motor not?


Starting of Induction Motor and Synchronous Motor




Three Phase Induction Motor does not need any starter for starting, or in other words three phase induction motor is self-starting. Three-phase synchronous motor has almost the same in construction as three phase induction motor. But the synchronous motor is not self-starting. So a question arises that Why Three Phase Induction Motor Self-Starting but Synchronous Motor not?




Why Three Phase Induction Motor Self-Starting?



In the three-phase induction motor, the stator winding needs three phase-supply. There are three windings in stator each are placed in 120 degrees apart.



Three Phase Induction Motor, Induction motor construction



So when we give three phase supply to the stator winding, a rotating magnetic field is created. At the starting time, the rotor is constant, so an emf is induced in the rotor winding for the transformer action. As the rotor winding is short-circuited so a short circuit current will flow through the rotor winding which causes by the induced emf.


The short circuit current creates a magnetic flux in the rotor winding which is opposite to the stator flux according to the Lenz's Law. Now the rotor flux tries to oppose the stator flux and to reduce the relative speed between the rotating magnetic field and the rotor speed, the rotor tends to run in the direction of the rotating magnetic field.

So, in simple words, the three-phase induction motor is self-starting because,

1. The stator creates a rotating magnetic field
2. The rotor flux is produced due to the stator flux and according to Lenz's law, the rotor flux tries to oppose the stator flux and creates a torque.






Why Three Phase Synchronous Motor is not Self-Starting?



Like three phase induction motor, in three-phase synchronous motor also rotating magnetic field is produced but the synchronous motor is not self-starting.



Synchronous Motor working principle



Induction motor works in the principle of electromagnetic induction but synchronous motor works in the principle of attraction or locking.

 As the rotor in the synchronous motor rotates at the synchronous speed so we need to create a locking between the rotor and the rotating magnetic field.


We know that the synchronous motor needs two power supply for its operation one is main three-phase AC supply in its stator winding and another is DC supply to its rotor winding.

When we give the DC supply to the rotor winding, it creates a magnetic field and its poles always constant. But as the AC supply is given to the stator winding, the stator poles does not constant, it continuously rotating as the magnetic field rotates.


Suppose when the north pole of the stator comes near to the north pole of the rotor they repulse to each other. When the south pole of the stator comes near to the north pole of the rotor they attract to each other. So there is a continuous reversible torque will be produced on the rotor and there no locking will be created between stator and rotor.

But if we initially rotate the rotor by means of the external prime mover at synchronous speed, the locking will be created and it will continuously rotate even after removing the prime mover.

So this was the reason Why Three Phase Induction Motor Self-Starting but Synchronous Motor not Self-Starting.





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Why Three Phase Induction Motor Self-Starting but Synchronous Motor not? Why Three Phase Induction Motor Self-Starting but Synchronous Motor not? Reviewed by ETechnoG on 10:20 Rating: 5
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